Electricity is the set of physical phenomena that are associated with the presence and flow of electric charge. In the case of the Electrical Age mod, electricity is used as electrical power.
The Volt is the unit for electrical potential. It measures the difference in electrical potential between 2 points. Think of it kind of like pressure, if it is too high, your wires or machinery will fail.
If the resistance and current of the circuit is known voltage can be calculated using the formula:
Voltage = Current * Resistance (V = IR)
Current, or amperage, is the flow of electrical charge. Current is measured in units called Amperes. It is also measured in a unit known as a Coulomb which is equal to 1 Ampere over 1 second. Currents can create magnetic fields, which can be used in inductors, motors, and generators. Electric currents also cause heating, which can be used to create light. Not too much though, you don't want to melt your wires or components.
If the voltage and resistance of the circuit is known the amperage can be calculated using Ohm's law:
Current = Voltage / Resistance (I = V/R)
Electrical resistance, is a measure of how difficult it is for electricity to move through a circuit. Measured in Ohms. Higher resistance will cause the electricity to struggle more and release more heat as a result. Due to current being based on resistance, having a higher resistance will actually lower the overall heating, since less current is flowing.
If the voltage and current of the circuit is known, and V and I are directly proportional, the resistance can be calculated as
Resistance = Voltage / Current (R = V/I)
In the case of batteries or diodes, V and I will not be directly proportional, however this formula may still be useful for calculating the static resistance.
Electrical power is the rate at which a circuit transfers energy. This can be measured in Joules and watts. Joules are how much energy is within a point at any given time. Watts are simply Joules in motion: Equal to 1 Joule over 1 second.
Wattage can be calculated using the formula
Power = Voltage * Current (P = VI).